What is Artificial Intelligence? How Does AI Work?

Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. Specific applications of AI include expert systems, natural language processing, speech recognition and machine vision.

If you don’t know Alexa, she’s part of Amazon’s Echo. This hands-free speaker that you can control with your voice is hands-free and gets smarter each day. Many will say that this is the beginning of an AI-led revolution. As companies seek new ways to invent in the field of artificial intelligence, there is a high demand for engineers and programmers.

What is the role of AI?

Vendors have scrambled to make it clear that their products and services are using AI as part of the growing hype surrounding AI. Many vendors refer to AI as just one component of AI such as machine-learning. AI is dependent on specialized hardware and software to write and train machine learning algorithms. AI is not synonymous with any one programming language, but there are a few that are, such as Python, R, and Java.

Gordan Moore proposed a hypothesis in 1965 that would be the foundation for modern digital revolution. Moore based his observation on a trend that was developing, and predicted that computational power would rise dramatically while relative costs would drop at an exponential pace. Moore’s law states that computers will double in processing power every two years. Moore’s observation was a key point in the development of applied sciences and the industry as a whole. The industry has followed his rule for fifty years. However, things have changed in the last five years. We are now witnessing changes in the digital environment.

Amazon, Google, Microsoft and Facebook are all technological giants. These technological giants are leading the way in a cyber revolution that is marked by rapid technological advancement. Google, for instance, recently revealed details about their Tenor Processing Unit (or or TPU), a server chip that they use internally to accelerate machine-learning capabilities by three generations. This is equivalent to accelerating technology by seven years or Moore’s Law by three generations.

What is the significance of artificial intelligence?

AI is vital because it can provide insights to enterprises that they didn’t know before and because in some cases AI can do tasks better than humans. AI tools are often able to complete repetitive tasks quickly and efficiently, especially when they are detailed-oriented, such as analyzing large amounts of legal documents to verify that the relevant fields have been filled in correctly.

We are also living in an age of self-driving vehicles. These vehicles were subject to issues during testing. Google’s driverless vehicle ran into unexpected safety problems in 2015. When the car is programmed to follow the rules, human error can be difficult to overcome. In 2009, for example, the car couldn’t make it through a four way stop because its sensors waited for other cars before allowing it to go through the intersection. The Google vehicle was immobilized when cars failed to stop completely. The car was criticized by some as being too safe, which only accentuates the incompatibility of humans and machines.

These situations created an inherent need to have self-correction mechanisms. Driverless cars must rely on feedback loops to self-correct, adapt to road conditions, and learn the unique behavior of drivers. MIT released a video earlier this year that shows self-correction technology in action. An industrial robot grabs either spools or spray paint cans and drops them into the appropriate bucket. The robot stops briefly to make the correct distinction and then drops the item into the appropriate container. A wearer of an EEG cap who notices something is wrong triggers the corrections.

The EEG cap measures 48 different signals from the brain. Many of these signals are hard to understand and very noisy. One signal, called ‘error potential’ is easy to detect. It causes a strong response in the brain to alert the user that there is something wrong. This is a different approach to the standard paradigm of today. Asking the human to program the machine using the machine’s language is a different approach than the usual paradigm. We see programmers allowing robots to use human language, rather than forcing humans to conform to robot’s programming language. Under human supervision, a robot performs some type of basic task. It is capable of overriding the task without the need to code or use physical means to stop the machine.

The three experts signed an open letter calling for research on the social impacts of artificial intelligence in 2015. The society can reap huge rewards from AI’s exploitation, but it must also be cautious not to create unmanageable situations. The open letter Research Priorities for Robust, Beneficial Artificial Intelligence: An Open Letter outlines the research priorities for AI as well as its vulnerabilities.

In 2014, Steven Hawking (physicist) and Elon Musk (magnate) had publicly stated that while supernormal artificial intelligence could provide many benefits, it could also lead to the end of the human race if used irresponsibly. Both Musk and Hawking have been appointed to the Future of Life Institute’s scientific advisory board. This organization is committed to reducing the existential threats facing humanity. The AI Reseach Institute prepared a letter for the community, which was circulated to the scientific locale in early 2015. It was then quickly released to the public.

What are the four types of artificial intelligence?

In a 2016 article, Arend Hintze (assistant professor of integrative biology, computer science, and engineering at Michigan State University) explained that AI can be classified into four types. These include task-specific intelligent system in widespread use today, and then progress to sentient systems which are not yet known. These are the categories:

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